基于柯布-道格拉斯生产函数和数据包络分析(DEA)方法，以河北平原7地市农户为研究对象，选取2013年小麦生产投入产出指标，从微观层面深入分析了小麦生产的规模报酬状态、效率有效性及松弛问题。研究显示，河北平原小麦生产整体处于规模报酬递减的状态，该研究区在2003年小麦生产投入已经达到饱和或者是已经过剩。在小麦生产的松弛问题方面，灌溉冗余最大为石家庄625.05 m3/hm2，最小为廊坊0 m3/hm2；N肥除去石家庄外均有较大冗余，衡水冗余最大最为74.63 kg/hm2；各个地区的P肥冗余均较大，最大的为保定48.45 kg/hm2；机械冗余均较小；产量可增长量最大为沧州1 542.15 kg/hm2。研究区各地区的纯技术效率、综合技术效率以及规模效率均为效率无效，其中纯技术效率与规模效率值在0.7以上，处于非效率有效性程度轻微的层次；综合技术效率值较纯技术效率以及规模效率低，存在较大提升空间。
Based on the C-D production function and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method, this study recruited 7 cities’ farmers in Hebei plain as the research objects, selected the wheat production inputs and outputs indexes in 2013, and finally analyzed the returns to scale, effectiveness and the relaxation problems of wheat production on a microscopic level. The results showed that the return to scale for wheat production was in a state of decreasing, and wheat production inputs had reached saturation or redundancy. For the relaxation problems of wheat production in Hebei pain, the maximum redundancy of irrigation was 625.05 m3?hm-2 in Shijiazhuang while the minimum number was 0 m3?hm-2 in Langfang; the maximum redundancy of nitrogen fertilizer was 74.625 kg?hm-2 in Hengshui; for Phosphate fertilizer, there were many redundancies in all of the 7 cities, and the maximum redundancy was 48.45 kg?hm-2 in Baoding; the maximum redundancy of machine was small in Hengshui; the maximum increase of output was 1542.15 kg?hm-2 in Cangzhou. The pure technical efficiency, comprehensive technical efficiency and scale efficiency were all inefficient. Therefore, the pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency were slightly inefficient because the values of them were all above 0.7 which was bigger than the value of comprehensive technical efficiency. Therefore, there is lager space for the improvement of wheat production efficiency in Hebei plain.
国家自然科学基金(National Natural Science Foundation of China)（41471027）、“十二五”农村领域国家科技计划项目(National Key Technology Research and Development Program)（2013BAD11B03-2）