通过对黄河流域水资源与人口经济配置的空间特征进行分析，以干流和13条主要支流为单元对黄河流域水 资源开发利用程度进行评价；以70个地级行政区为单元对水资源和水环境承载状况进行评价；基于水资源禀赋及 供用水、经济社会、粮食和能源、水资源承载状况、水环境承载状况构建空间均衡状态评价指标体系，基于多指标综 合评价法开展黄河流域空间均衡状态分析。结果表明，黄河流域 74% 的面积处于“不均衡”和“极不均衡”状态，空间处于“极不均衡”状态的区域主要分布在上游宁蒙河段、中游汾渭平原及下游河道滩区。
The balanced coordination relationship between water resources and the three systems including population,economy and society,and the ecological environment is a key criterion to achieve "spatial equilibrium",which mainly includes the sustainable use of water resources,the highquality development of economy and society,and the virtuous cycle of ecological environment.Many scholars focus on the theory of "spatial equilibrium" for water resources.However,few studies are investigating the comprehensive evaluation of "spatial equilibrium" state for regions or basins due to the lack of unified evaluation standard.Accurately evaluating the spatial equilibrium state for the Yellow River basin is of great significance to recognize the natural law,ecological and economic law of the Yellow River,and formulating scientific and reasonable water resources management measures based on local conditions. The development and utilization of water resources were evaluated in the main stream and 13 tributaries for Yellow River.The carrying capacity of water resources and water environment for 70 prefecturelevel administrative regions was also evaluated.The evaluation index system of "spatial equilibrium" is constructed based on 14 indexes,deriving from five aspects,including the endowment and supply of water resources,the economy and society,the food and energy,the water resources carrying capacity,and the water environment carrying conditions.The state of "spatial equilibrium" is evaluated through the multiindex comprehensive evaluation method. In terms of the utilization degree of water resources in the main streams and tributaries,62% of the Yellow River basin areas are in the state of "high" or "extremely high" utilization degree.The "extremely high" utilization degree state covers an area of 56,000 km2,accounting for nearly 7% of the whole basin,which is mainly distributed in Shanxi Province (for the middle reaches of the Yellow River) and Shandong Province (for the lower reaches).The following region was considered to have a lower degree of utilization,including the water sources area in the main stream above Longyang Gorge Reservoir,Taohe River,Daxia River,and Datong River in Gannan,and the Wuding River,covering an area of about 213,000 km2,accounting for 27% of the basin area.The northern Shaanxi and western Shanxi areas are of "moderate" state,accounting for 11% of the whole basin area,because the local surface water is quite difficult to use under their special topography condition.For the water resources carrying capacity condition,among the 70 prefecturelevel administrative regions in the Yellow River basin,13 regions are in the state of "seriously overloaded",accounting for 18.6%,and 19 regions are elevated as "overloaded" (accounting for 271%).Besides, there are 10 "critical" and 28 "not overloaded" regions,accounting for 14.3% and 40.0%,respectively.From water environment perspective,there are 35 prefecturelevel administrative regions (half of the whole numbers) of 8 provinces in the state of "seriously overloaded" or "overloaded",among which 12 regions are "seriously overloaded",and 23 regions are "overloaded".Besides,there are 5 and 30 regions in the state of "critical" and "not overloaded",accounting for 7.1% and 42.9%,respectively.According to the comprehensive evaluation,the Yellow River basin is generally in a state of spatial "imbalance",and the areas of spatial "extremely imbalance" are mainly distributed in the NingxiaInner Mongolia Reach of the upper reaches of the Yellow River,FenWei River plain of the middle reaches,and the beaches of the lower reaches. The water resources in Yellow River basin are generally in a state of spatial "imbalance".To improve the degree of "spatial equilibrium" of the "imbalance" areas,corresponding measures should be taken(insisting the problemoriented and demandoriented strategy),according to the different equilibrium problems and causes in different regions,and the coordination between water and the systems of economic,society,and ecological environment must improve.In the NingxiaInner Mongolia Reach,we must enroll the "waterdetermineland" route,meanwhile take series of water saving measures for agricultural.In the FenWei River plain,the key route is to coordinate the relationship among water,energy and food,such as optimizing the economic structure,comprehensively treating the areas of groundwater overextraction,and strictly restricting the emission of river pollutants.In the downstream areas,the scheme of replacing the water diversion beyond the basin should be seriously considered in combination with the followup SouthtoNorth Water Transfer Project and the water price policy.