从分析长江生态环境问题出发,总结长江大保护实施以来取得的成绩,讨论生态环境存在的深层次问题及科学解决方法和管理对策,对未来长江保护提出对策建议。分析表明:长江河流型水质改善明显，但湖泊水质及生态系统恢复较慢。珍稀特有物种的恢复和水生态系统完整性修复、流域面源污染控制等都是长期而复杂的任务。在气候变化和人类活动双重影响下，长江生态系统演变机制及修复技术、充分考虑生态需求的水利工程群联合调控方 法、流域综合监测与数字孪生技术发展、长江保护各项机制的完善是未来科学研究和流域保护的重点。只有通过系 统观测和分析，采用适应性的保护和管理措施，才能实现长江经济带高质量发展的目标。
Yangtze River is not only the largest river in China, but also the most important water source in China. Protecting the Yangtze River is the basis for the high-quality development of the Yangtze River economic belt. Starting from the analysis of the ecological and environmental problems of Yangtze River, the achievements made in the implementation of the great protection of Yangtze River in the past six years are summarized, the deep-seated problems existing in the ecological environment, scientific solutions and management countermeasures are discussed，and comprehensive countermeasures and suggestions for the protec- tion of Yangtze River in the future are put forward. The analysis shows that the river water quality of Yangtze River has im- proved significantly, but the recovery of lake water quality and ecosystem is slow. The restoration of rare and endemic species, the restoration of water ecosystem integrity and the control of watershed non-point source pollution are long-term and complex tasks. Under the dual influence of climate change and human activities，the evolution mechanism and restoration technology of Yangtze River ecosystem? the joint regulation method of hydraulic engineering groups with full consideration of ecological needs, the development of comprehensive monitoring and digital twin technology of the river basin,and the improvement of vari- ous mechanisms of Yangtze River protection are the focus of future scientific research and river basin protection. Only through comprehensive observation, systematic scientific research and adaptive management measures?the goal for both high-quality de- velopment o￡ Yangtze River economic belt and beautiful China can be achieved.