系统梳理地表、地下各水文过程中常见的控制方程以及数值求解方法，指出单一地下水模型和单一地表水 模型在解决耦合问题中的短板。回顾近年来的相关研究，归纳出 11 种常见的耦合模型。从模型原理和适用方向 2 个方面对已有研究概括总结，将耦合方法划分为松散耦合型、半松散耦合型和紧密耦合型，分析耦合模型在变 化环境下的地下水-地表水转化关系、河道生态流量以及地表水-地下水联合调度方面的应用。未来可以重点关注 耦合模型在复杂地貌、多样化参数、模型识别验证方法、运算效率以及多学科交叉等方面的研究。
Surface water and groundwater are closely related hydrologic units, both are an important part of water resources and have complex water exchange. The interaction between surface water and groundwater is influenced by topographic features, climate change, and human activities. The distribution of the chemical composition of surface-subsurface on a spatial scale increased by the complexity of hydrological conditions. Therefore, a scientific understanding of the surface-groundwater conversion relationship is an important basis for the sustainable development of water resources and the protection of the ecological environment.With the development of computer technology, hydrological models came to be an important means to understand and quantify surface and subsurface hydrological processes. They integrate the governing equation of flow motion and are solved by the numerical solution method. Especially the physics-based surface-subsurface coupling model can comprehensively consider the interrelation of overland flow, vadose zone, saturated zone, and channel flow, and has become an important tool to understand the comprehensive hydrological process.An extensive literature review was made through a systematically summarization, the common governing equations of the surface zone, vadose zone, groundwater, and river were sorted out, and the numerical solution methods of finite difference, finite element, and finite volume method. It is pointed out that the single groundwater model and single surface water model have shortcomings in quantifying the amount of water conversion between surface and subsurface. A total of 11 commonly used surface-subsurface models were summarized in detail, and the characteristics and applicable directions of each model were explained. These coupled models are classified as loosely coupled, semi-loosely coupled, and tightly coupled models based on the coupling methods. Coupled models have been widely used in the analysis of surface water - groundwater transfer relationship under environmental changes, the research of river ecological base flow, and the analysis of joint dispatch of surface water and groundwater.It is suggested that the researcher can focus following topics in future research, such as (1) the analysis of the specific mechanisms of surface-subsurface interaction in complex geomorphic areas. (2) Make full use of remote sensing technology and enrich the means of obtaining hydrological parameters. (3) Enhancement of model identification and verification, to explore multi-state, multi-factor methods, select appropriate time steps of verification data, and ensure the data quality. (4) Alternative models could also be considered as well to reduce the cost of repeatedly invoking the model and to improve the simulation efficiency. (5) Integration of model coupling with cross-discipline to realize the application in multiple fields.